Control over the divided city of Gaalkacyo, in north-central Somalia, has been fiercely contested by competing administrations for years before the Galkayo Peace Agreement in 2016. The Puntland and Galmudug state administrations control the northern and southern sections of the city, respectively. Recurring cycles of violence since November 2015 have had a significant impact on the population.
Peace was restored after the agreement in 2016 the situation of Galkayo has improved drastically, and this is apparent, as the city has seen improvements from the side of the economy, socially, and politically. The peace accord was signed between the then leaders of Puntland and Galmudug, Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, and Abdikarim Hussein Guled signing a ceasefire agreement on 1 November 2016 in Abu Dhabi (UAE).
Instability in the area has created an opportunity for al-Shabaab to exploit. One of the examples of this is that Galkayo witnessed 18 December 2020, one of the worst days one can remember. A heavy self-detonated explosion happened there at the entrance of the old Abdullahi Isse Stadium, where the of federal republic of Somali Prime Minister, Mohamed Roble was trying to deliver a speech to the Galkayo – Galmudug Side – People. The explosion resulted in heavy casualties, including deaths and injuries. Prime Minister Roble was not at the scene when the blast occurred. The situation is tense in the city. These days, the city is put under curfew, and no one can move. Businesses are closed, and people are mourning the people who were either killed or injured in the blast. Both senior officials and civilians were killed in the blast, which caused unconfirmed more than 50 deaths, and more than 100 injuries.
During the commemoration of the Galkayo Peace Accord, the agreement that was reached in 2017 was read in front of the participants to remind them of the main points of what the agreement has entailed.
Twenty-six individuals from both sides of Galkayo signed the Galkayo Peace Agreement, and the party violating the agreement will be considered spoiler and anti-peace. The signatories include the governors of both sides of Galkayo and elders from Galmudug and Puntland.
Following the 11-point agreement between the states of Galmudug and Puntland:
- Establish a bipartisan peace committee in the Mudug region, especially in Galkayo District.
- That all roadblocks be removed by Saturday, 16 Dec 2017, and that it is the duty of both sides to safely use the previously closed main roads in Galkayo, from this date. Today this agreement will be signed.
- To form a joint security force in the Mudug region.
- To vacate the places where the militias are stationed as already agreed, the responsibility rests with the joint peace forces.
- In areas where there is a clan militia especially the rural areas, they will remain in those areas, until a permanent solution is established, and will be patrolled by a combination of both the Join peace committees and the Somali security forces.
- Every person has the right to build, live, buy and trade his or her own home without being prevented from doing so by any means.
- To stop reports of inciting violence.
- That all Mudug regional administrations, business people, and various sectors of society support the Somali National Army, police, and security forces in fulfilling their security responsibilities in Galkayo.
- That the two regional and district governors work together to ensure the security of the Mudug region, especially in Galkayo.
- The Commander of the Somali National Army promises to strengthen the peace process, God willing, and he is the Commander Gorod.
- The signatories request that the Commander of the Somali National Army hand over the security of the Mudug region to the joint Somali National Army in the Mudug region.
Note: This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature of all parties, and was signed, and the party to the breach of the agreement shall be deemed anti-peace and appropriate action shall be taken in accordance with the law.
Twenty-six individuals, 10 each from both sides of the agreement, and six girls, 3 from each side, signed the agreement. The two governors of the Mudug region and the two district commissioners of Galkayo, in the presence of the army commander, also signed the agreement. Moreover, in the presence of the Somali Forces Major General Abdiweli Hussein Gorod, and the Commander of the Puntland Armed Forces, General Said Mohamed Said Dheere.
The third commemoration of the Galkayo Peace Accord that was signed in 2017 was attended by so many delegates from different parts of Galakyo, among the notable participants included the Security minister of Galmudug State of Somalia Mr. Fiqi. Others include:
- The team from PDRC and HC the coorganizer and financiers of the event,
- Local Muslim scholars,
- Youth both men and women,
- The Joint Peace Committee (JPC),
- Women, and
- Business community.
The event took place in Global Hotel in the southern part of Galmudug State of Galkayo.
The event had four panels that answered the questions that come from the participants, who were the following:
- Former Speaker of the Galmudug Parliament Hassan Mohamud Hayl,
- Sheikh Muhiyadin Yusuf Barre, a religious sheik from Galkayo,
- Deputy Mayor of Galkayo Mr. Mohamed Abdi Elmi, and
- Maxamed Ahmed Gayre – Galmudug Elder.